Understanding the Syntax
Working with Variables and Data Types
Exploring Control Flow and Loops
Debugging and Troubleshooting
Building Interactive User Interfaces
Developing Objects and Classes
Connecting to External APIs
It is often helpful for developers to leverage existing APIs to add more features or data sources to an application. APIs (application programming interfaces) allow developers to send requests (such as GET, POST, PUT) over the internet in order to retrieve data or perform an action such as sending an email or creating a new record in a database. Understanding how external APIs work is essential for building modern web applications.
Securing Applications with Authentication and Authorization
In order to create secure web applications, developers must understand the principles of authentication and authorization. Authentication involves verifying who a user is by verifying claims such as a username or password. Authorization allows developers to specify who has access to certain parts of an application by assigning granted permissions to users or groups of users. Leveraging existing authentication and authorization libraries or implementing custom solutions will allow developers to safely restrict access to certain parts of their application.
Integrating with Databases
Databases are essential for developing most applications due to the need for persistent storage of data. For example, when authenticating users or creating posts with comments, the information needs to be stored somewhere. Integrating with a database requires understanding how databases works as well as how to write SQL statements or utilize existing libraries for performing queries.
Working with Asynchronous Code
Deployment and Hosting Strategies
Once an application has been created, it needs to be deployed onto a hosting environment so that it can be accessed by users over the internet. Depending on the application’s size and complexity, there are many different hosting strategies available for deployment, such as single-node hosting on a shared server or deploying a load-balanced cluster of web servers behind a reverse proxy server.