Java Checked Exception List: Java Explained

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A checked exception is one of the numerous types of errors that can occur within a Java program. They must be declared and handled in Java code, or they can cause the program to fail. Checked exceptions are designed to help developers catch problems in their code early and ensure the program runs smoothly. In this article, we’ll discuss what a checked exception is, what types of checked exceptions there are, how to handle them, why they’re important, and best practices for avoiding them.

What is a Checked Exception?

Put simply, a checked exception is an error that is detected during compile time and needs to be handled. Checked exceptions are necessary for the quality and security of a Java program; they help detect potential problems in the code and alert the programmer to fix them. All checked exceptions must be declared or handled, or they will cause the program to fail.

Unlike unchecked exceptions, checked exceptions are not automatically thrown by the Java compiler. When a checked exception occurs, the developer needs to identify the cause of the error and handle it appropriately. The Java compiler will detect if an appropriate try-catch block has been added to the code, otherwise the program will fail with a compile time error.

Checked exceptions are generally grouped into two categories; those that must be declared in a method’s throw clause, such as IOException, and those that do not need to be specified, such as NullPointerException.

It is important to note that checked exceptions are not always the best way to handle errors. In some cases, it may be more efficient to use unchecked exceptions, as they are not required to be declared or handled. However, it is important to consider the potential risks of using unchecked exceptions, as they can lead to unexpected errors and unexpected behavior in the program.

Types of Checked Exceptions in Java

There are many types of checked exceptions that can occur in Java code. The most common types of checked exceptions are IOException, which occur when trying to read or write data to a file, and ClassNotFoundException, which occur when a specified class cannot be found by the Java compiler. Other common types of checked exceptions include SQLException, which occur when dealing with databases, and InterruptedException, which occur when a thread is interrupted.

When dealing with checked exceptions, it’s important to understand the different types and their purpose. Knowing what kind of exception is being thrown will make it easier to develop effective solutions.

It is also important to remember that checked exceptions must be handled in the code. If a checked exception is not handled, the code will not compile. This means that it is important to be aware of the types of checked exceptions that can occur in your code and to handle them appropriately.

Handling Checked Exceptions in Java

Checked exceptions must be handled correctly in order for the program to run properly. The easiest way to do this is to use a try-catch block. This works by looking for an error in a specific part of the code and handling it if it is encountered. If an error is encountered, the code will then attempt to find an appropriate solution.

If an error occurs outside of the try-catch block, it will be detected with a compile time error and the code will not run. The compiler checks all of the exception handlers before compiling, so it’s important to make sure all errors are properly handled before compiling the code. This will ensure that the program runs smoothly.

It is also important to remember that checked exceptions should be handled in the most specific way possible. This means that the most specific exception handler should be used to handle the exception, rather than a generic one. This will help to ensure that the program is able to handle the exception in the most efficient way possible.

Benefits of Using Checked Exceptions

Java checked exceptions provide numerous benefits to developers. By forcing developers to handle exceptions properly, developers can better understand what went wrong with their code. This makes it easier to pinpoint errors and more effectively fix them. Furthermore, checked exceptions can also help prevent programs from crashing due to unexpected errors.

Using checked exceptions also helps developers ensure their programs comply with coding standards. This can help improve readability and maintainability of code, making it easier for other developers to understand and update.

Checked exceptions also provide a way for developers to create custom error messages that are more descriptive and helpful. This can help users better understand what went wrong and how to fix it, making it easier to troubleshoot and debug code.

Common Causes of Checked Exceptions

Checked exceptions can occur for a variety of reasons. They can be triggered by system errors, IO errors, database errors, or thread interrupts. Additionally, incorrect coding practices can lead to checked exceptions occurring in Java programs.

It’s important that developers understand the root causes of Java checked exceptions so they can properly handle them. Knowing the potential sources of errors can help prevent issues from occurring in the first place.

Developers should also be aware of the different types of checked exceptions that can occur. For example, IOException, SQLException, and InterruptedException are all common checked exceptions that can be thrown in Java programs. By understanding the different types of exceptions, developers can better anticipate and handle them when they occur.

Best Practices for Dealing with Checked Exceptions

To handle checked exceptions properly, developers need to take certain steps. It’s important to add try-catch blocks around code where errors could occur, as this will ensure the program will at least handle an exception if it occurs. Developers should also ensure they properly document all try-catch blocks so other developers can understand what they are doing.

Developers should also use logging frameworks to log any errors that occur during runtime. This will make it easier to debug and diagnose issues quickly. Additionally, developers should use unit testing frameworks to test their code for potential issues.

Finally, developers should ensure they are familiar with the different types of exceptions that can occur in their code. This will help them to better understand how to handle exceptions when they occur, and will also help them to create more robust code.


Checked exceptions are an important part of Java programming and can help ensure secure and reliable code. By getting familiar with checked exceptions, understanding their types and causes, and following best practices for dealing with them, developers can ensure their programs run smoothly and effectively.

It is important to remember that checked exceptions are not always necessary and can be avoided in some cases. For example, if a method is not likely to throw an exception, it can be declared as a void method instead of throwing a checked exception. Additionally, checked exceptions should be used sparingly and only when absolutely necessary, as they can add complexity to the code and make it more difficult to debug.

Anand Das

Anand Das

Anand is Co-founder and CTO of Bito. He leads technical strategy and engineering, and is our biggest user! Formerly, Anand was CTO of Eyeota, a data company acquired by Dun & Bradstreet. He is co-founder of PubMatic, where he led the building of an ad exchange system that handles over 1 Trillion bids per day.

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