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Window Object Javascript: Javascript Explained

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JavaScript is one of the most popular programming languages. It is used to power interactive elements of webpages and add dynamic elements to the page beyond the capabilities of HTML and CSS. Although many web developers may understand the concepts of JavaScript, few are familiar with the nuances of the language’s window object. In this article, we will explore the window object in detail and explain how it works.

What is the Window Object?

The window object is an inbuilt JavaScript object that is used to interact with the browser window. It is the global workspace for all the scripts running in a browser. All variables, functions, and objects created in JavaScript are contained within the window object. It also contains many other properties that can be manipulated in order to influence the page.

The window object is the top-level object in the browser, and it is the parent of all other objects. It contains methods and properties that allow you to manipulate the browser window, such as opening and closing windows, changing the size of the window, and more. It also contains methods and properties that allow you to interact with the document, such as accessing the DOM, manipulating the page content, and more.

What Are the Properties of a Window Object?

The window object contains several properties that can be accessed and modified. These include the document object model (DOM), the location object, the frames array, and an array of dialogs. It also contains properties that allow developers to manipulate the browser history and implement security settings.

In addition, the window object contains methods that allow developers to open and close windows, resize windows, and scroll the window to a specific position. It also contains methods for creating and manipulating cookies, as well as methods for creating and manipulating timers. Finally, the window object contains properties that allow developers to access the window’s size, position, and state.

How to Create a Window Object

A window object is automatically created when a webpage loads in a browser. To access this existing window object, you can use the global variable window. You can also create a new window object by calling the constructor function window(). This constructor takes two parameters – a URL for the page to be loaded and an optional name for the window – and opens a new window with that URL.

When creating a new window object, you can also specify additional parameters such as the size of the window, whether it should be resizable, and whether it should have a menu bar. You can also specify whether the window should be opened in a new tab or a new window. Additionally, you can specify whether the window should be opened in a modal or non-modal state.

How to Access and Modify Properties of a Window Object

The properties of a window object can be accessed by calling the window.propertyName command, where ‘propertyName’ is replaced by the name of the property you want to access. You can also modify properties of a window object by accessing them with this command and then setting them to a new value. For example, you can set a new value to window.status by using the following command: window.status = ‘New Value!’

In addition to modifying the properties of a window object, you can also access the methods associated with the window object. These methods can be used to perform various tasks, such as opening and closing windows, displaying messages, and more. To access a window object’s methods, you can use the window.methodName command, where ‘methodName’ is replaced by the name of the method you want to access.

Working with Frames in the Window Object

The frames array of a window object contains all the frames in the underlying webpage. To access a particular frame, you can use the syntax window.frames[framenumber], where ‘framenumber’ is the number of the frame you want to access. The frames can be used to manipulate different parts of a webpage, such as displaying different content in different frames or displaying an ad on one frame while keeping the main content on another.

In addition to manipulating the content of frames, you can also use the frames array to access the properties of each frame. This includes the frame’s width, height, and position on the page. You can also use the frames array to access the document object of each frame, which can be used to access the HTML elements within the frame.

Working with Dialogs in the Window Object

The dialogs array of a window object contains all the dialog boxes associated with that page. Each entry in this array corresponds to an open dialog box, and allows developers to interact with them programmatically. This can be used for various purposes, such as displaying different content in different dialog boxes or creating custom dialog boxes for user input.

The window object also provides methods for creating and managing dialog boxes. These methods can be used to open, close, and resize dialog boxes, as well as to set their properties. Additionally, developers can use the window object to access the contents of a dialog box, such as the text or HTML elements it contains.

Events and Event Handlers in the Window Object

The events and event handlers associated with a window object are crucial for adding interactivity to webpages. Events are triggered when certain conditions are met and can be used to program behavior on a web page. Event handlers then handle these events and execute JavaScript code when these events are triggered.

Common events associated with the window object include onload, onresize, onscroll, and onunload. Onload is triggered when the page has finished loading, onresize is triggered when the window is resized, onscroll is triggered when the window is scrolled, and onunload is triggered when the page is unloaded. Each of these events can be used to trigger specific JavaScript code, allowing for dynamic and interactive webpages.

Interacting with the Browser History in the Window Object

The browser history is an essential part of modern web development. The window object provides several properties that enable developers to modify and interact with the browser history. This includes functions such as back(), forward(), and go() which allow developers to move between pages in the browser history, as well as properties such as length which allow developers to get information about the browser history.

Implementing Security Settings in the Window Object

The security settings associated with a window object allows developers to enforce certain restrictions on their webpages. These settings can be used to prevent popup windows from being created, or restrict certain websites from being opened within an iframe on your page. These security settings are important for ensuring that users are interacting with secure websites only.

Browser Compatibility for the Window Object

The window object is compatible with all major web browsers including Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, and Internet Explorer. It should also be noted that some properties of the window object are not supported in all browsers. It is important to check browser compatibility when using the window object and its properties.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the window object in JavaScript provides developers with a powerful tool for interacting with their web pages. It contains several properties that can be accessed and modified to influence various aspects of webpages. It also contains event handlers which allow developers to add interactivity to their webpages, as well as security settings which prevent users from accessing malicious content. By leveraging these features, developers can create powerful interactive webpages.

Nisha Kumari

Nisha Kumari

Nisha Kumari, a Founding Engineer at Bito, brings a comprehensive background in software engineering, specializing in Java/J2EE, PHP, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and web development. Her career highlights include significant roles at Accenture, where she led end-to-end project deliveries and application maintenance, and at PubMatic, where she honed her skills in online advertising and optimization. Nisha's expertise spans across SAP HANA development, project management, and technical specification, making her a versatile and skilled contributor to the tech industry.

Written by developers for developers

This article was handcrafted with by the Bito team.

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