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Java Characters List: Java Explained

Table of Contents

Java is one of the most popular programming languages, and it has been around for a long time. The language was created in 1995, and since then it has been used for many varied purposes, such as creating web applications, mobile applications, and desktop applications. As a result, Java is an incredibly powerful and versatile language, and it is often seen as the “gateway” language, since many developers learn it to get into programming.

What is Java?

Java is a general-purpose programming language that is widely used to create applications which can run in virtual machines or mobile devices. It combines the power of both object-oriented and procedural languages, and has features that make it easier to build efficient, secure, and robust applications. Java programs run with the help of a compiler and interpreter, meaning it is able to convert written code into instructions that can be run on a computer.

Java is a popular language for developing web applications, mobile applications, and enterprise applications. It is also used to create software for embedded systems, such as those found in cars and other devices. Java is a versatile language that can be used for a variety of tasks, from creating simple programs to complex enterprise applications.

Characteristics of Java

Java is a class-based language which provides the ability to create reusable code classes. It is also a type-safe language which helps increase security by preventing unintended data conversion. In addition, Java has automatic garbage collection which manages the allocation and de-allocation of memory resources for you. This garbage collection removes the risk of memory leaks. Java is also a platform-independent language, meaning it can be run on different hardware devices factoring in the same runtime.

Primitive Data Types

Primitive data types are the most basic components of a programming language and represent the simplest building blocks for all program operations. Java’s primitive data types include byte, short, int, long, float, double, boolean, char, and void. These are used to store different types of data, depending on their underlying characteristics. For example, an int can be used to store whole numbers, while a double can be used to store real numbers.

Non-Primitive Data Types

Non-primitive data types are also known as reference types as they store references to data rather than the actual values. Reference types include classes, interfaces, and arrays. Classes are used to define custom objects with their own data fields and methods. Interfaces are used for declaring a set of related methods that must be implemented by classes that use them. Finally, arrays are used for storing multiple values in a single variable.

Operators in Java

Operators are special symbols used to perform operations on data. In Java there are various operators including arithmetic operators (+,-,*,/) logical operators (&&, ||, !) assignment operators (=) and comparison operators (>, <). Examples of how each of these can be used in code include: addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), equal to (=), greater than (>), and less than (<).

Arrays in Java

Arrays are special objects that can store multiple values at once instead of individual variables. These can be either single dimensional or multi-dimensional. For example, a single dimensional array can hold 10 values: int[] array= new int[10]. Creating multi-dimensional arrays in Java requires more code and care taken with syntax such as: int[][] array = new int[5][6]. In addition, it’s important to remember that all elements within an array will be initialized with a default value (for example 0 for ints).

Strings in Java

Strings are objects used to store character data in Java. This refers to any type of text data, including letters, words, or sentences. Strings are immutable (i.e. cannot be changed) once created and can be manipulated using methods such as length(), charAt() and substring(). They also have several constructors so you can create a new string from an array of characters or from other strings.

Classes and Objects in Java

A class is the template which an object is created from and consists of both fields and methods that define the structure of an object. Classes are defined using keywords such as public, private, and protected. Objects are instances of classes which contain their own separate data fields and methods. Objects are created with the new keyword as follows: String myObject = new String().

Constructors in Java

Constructors are special methods used to create objects from classes. They have the same name as the class they reside in and will not return any values. Constructors are usually public and are called when an object is created through the “new” keyword. Constructors will typically contain parameters so variables can be set to personalized values during instantiation. They also often call methods which set the fields of the object with initial values.

Methods in Java

Methods are functions which allow code to be reused without duplication. They are stored within a class but have access to that class’s fields. Methods return values when called, but may also modify fields within their associated class. They also take arguments/parameters which can be used to modify or retrieve values from inside the method body. Non-static methods are sensitive to objects states and will behave differently based on context.

Interfaces in Java

Interfaces are special constructs which contain abstract methods and constants. They act as contracts between related classes to ensure that the correct methods are being implemented. All abstract methods defined within an interface must be implemented in any class defined within that interface so that it can be called from code outside the interface. Interfaces provide an important layer of abstraction as they allow class behavior to be defined without needing to implement all internal logic.

Exception Handling in Java

Exceptions are special objects which are thrown by the JVM when errors or unexpected conditions occur during program execution. These often contain detailed messages explaining why they are thrown so they can be tracked down more easily. Java provides several built-in exception classes as well as custom ones which define expected behavior when exceptions occur. Exception handling is important for both user experience and debugging purposes.

Advanced Features of Java

Java provides a variety of advanced features for developers who require more control over their code. This includes generic types, concurrency, inner/nested classes, annotations, streams/lambdas, functional interfaces, auto-boxing/unboxing and robust reflection capabilities. All of these features provide ways of writing cleaner code with improved performance and maintainability.

Examples of Java Code

To help illustrate some of the key concepts just discussed in this article here are a few examples of some very basic Java code:

  • Arrays: int[] myArray = new int[5];
  • Strings: String greeting = “Hello World”;
  • Classes/Objects: class Example { public static void main(String args[]) { Example obj = new Example(); } }
  • Methods: void sayHello() { System.out.println(“Hello!”); }
  • Interfaces: interface ExampleInterface { void sayHello(); }

Future of Java

Java has been around for over two decades and is still going strong today as one of the top programming languages used by developers around the world. It is continuing to evolve with the introduction of newer technologies like Modules, Jigsaw, and Jakarta EE as well as with improvements to existing features like multithreading and parallel computing capabilities. With its versatility and constantly updated environment there’s no doubt that Java will remain a prominent part of software development well into the future.

Sarang Sharma

Sarang Sharma

Sarang Sharma is Software Engineer at Bito with a robust background in distributed systems, chatbots, large language models (LLMs), and SaaS technologies. With over six years of experience, Sarang has demonstrated expertise as a lead software engineer and backend engineer, primarily focusing on software infrastructure and design. Before joining Bito, he significantly contributed to Engati, where he played a pivotal role in enhancing and developing advanced software solutions. His career began with foundational experiences as an intern, including a notable project at the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, to develop an assistive website for the visually challenged.

Written by developers for developers

This article was handcrafted with by the Bito team.

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