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## Java Int To Biginteger: Java Explained

Java Int and Biginteger are two distinct numerical data types which are used for different purposes in Java programming. In this article, we’ll discuss the difference between the two, when you should use Biginteger instead of the standard Java Int, how to convert from one to the other, the advantages and limitations of Biginteger, and best practices for working with them.

## What is Java Int and Biginteger?

Java Int is a primitive data type used to represent whole numbers. This means variables of type Int can store any integer by value. The size of an Int value is 8 bits, which means it can take on values between -2,147,483,648 and 2,147,483,647. All basic mathematical operations can be performed using this type.

Biginteger is an immutable arbitrary-precision signed integer. In other words, it’s an integer data type that can store a wide range of values, as it is not limited by size. Unlike Int, Biginteger can store numbers greater than 2,147,483,647 and less than -2,147,483,648. Functions such as adding, subtracting and multiplying numbers can be performed with Biginteger.

Biginteger is often used when dealing with large numbers, such as those used in cryptography or scientific calculations. It is also useful when dealing with numbers that are too large to fit into a standard Int data type. Biginteger is also more efficient than using multiple Int variables to store a large number.

## When Should You Use Biginteger?

You should use Biginteger when you need to store a number that is too large for an 8-bit Int. This could be numbers in scientific calculations, web applications with a very large user base or any situation where you need to perform a numerical operation that might produce an overflow error with an Int.

Biginteger is also useful when you need to perform calculations with very large numbers, such as those used in cryptography. It is also useful for applications that require precise calculations, such as financial applications, where accuracy is essential.

## How To Convert Java Int To Biginteger

The simplest way to convert from Int to Biginteger is by using the BigInteger.valueOf() method. This takes in an argument of type Int and returns a new Biginteger object.

``BigInteger bigint1 = BigInteger.valueOf(int1);``

Alternatively, you can also create a new BigInteger object from a String object. This is useful for applications wherein you parse user input as a String before converting into a numerical data type.

``String str1 = "1234567";BigInteger bigint2 = new BigInteger(str1);``

It is important to note that the BigInteger class is immutable, meaning that once it is created, its value cannot be changed. Therefore, if you need to modify the value of a BigInteger object, you must create a new one.

## Advantages of Biginteger Over Int

The most obvious advantage of using Biginteger over Int is that it can work with larger numbers without throwing overflow errors. In addition, due to its arbitrary-precision nature, Biginteger can provide significant performance gains in certain applications.

Biginteger also offers more flexibility when it comes to operations. For example, it can perform operations such as modular arithmetic, which is not possible with Int. Furthermore, Biginteger can be used to represent numbers in different bases, such as binary, octal, and hexadecimal, which can be useful in certain applications.

## Limitations of Biginteger

Biginteger is more expensive than using Int because it requires more CPU resources. Also, due to its capacity to handle very large numbers, it may take longer for comparisons or sorting operations involving Biginteger objects.

In addition, Biginteger is not suitable for use in applications that require a high degree of accuracy, such as scientific or financial calculations. This is because Biginteger does not support floating-point operations, and therefore cannot represent decimal numbers accurately.

## How To Handle Exceptions When Converting Int To Biginteger

When converting from Int to Biginteger, there are several errors which could occur. These could be because of invalid input types or strings which correspond to very large numbers that exceed the size limit of Biginteger. When handling these errors, it’s important to assess their cause and take appropriate action.

## Troubleshooting Common Problems With Java Int To Biginteger Conversion

When attempting to convert from Int to Biginteger, one may encounter a number of errors. These could range from illegal argument exceptions where a wrong data type is passed into the constructor to number format exceptions if the String argument is non-numeric. These problems can often be solved by ensuring that all parameters are valid before conversion.

It is also important to check the range of the Int value before attempting to convert it to Biginteger. If the Int value is too large, it may cause an overflow error. Additionally, if the Int value is negative, it must be converted to a positive value before it can be converted to Biginteger.

## Best Practices for Working with Java Int and BigInteger

When working with both Java Int and Biginteger types, there are certain best practices which should be followed. The Int data type should only be used when the values the application needs to handle are guaranteed to remain within the 8-bit size limit. For larger numbers, it’s advisable to use the Biginteger type. Also, when working with both types, it’s important to anticipate exceptions and handle errors gracefully.

#### Anand Das

Anand is Co-founder and CTO of Bito. He leads technical strategy and engineering, and is our biggest user! Formerly, Anand was CTO of Eyeota, a data company acquired by Dun & Bradstreet. He is co-founder of PubMatic, where he led the building of an ad exchange system that handles over 1 Trillion bids per day.

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